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      二十四節氣 | 雨水:好雨知時節-天天快資訊

      雨水,二十四節氣中的第二個節氣,于每年的正月十五前后(公歷2月18日-20日),太陽黃經達330度時正式到來。此時,氣溫回升、冰雪融化、降水增多,故取名為“雨水”。

      The Rain Water, the second of the 24 SolarTerms, falls around the Lantern Festival (between February 18 and 20 in the Gregorian calendar) each year, when the solar longitudereaches 330 degrees. By the time, the temperature begins to rise up, the snow and ice begin to melt, and rainfalls become frequent, hence the name “Rain Water”.

      好 雨 知 時 節


      (資料圖片僅供參考)

      Good rain knows its time right

      圖片來源:新華網

      Photo from Xinhuanet.com

      雨水是一個富有浪漫情調的節氣,在此時節的春雨,不同于疾風驟雨的夏雨,不同于凄清冰涼的秋雨,它是潤物細無聲的夜雨,是令人心生愉悅的杏花雨。雨水時節往往令人心情曠遠舒暢,在文人墨客的筆下,也不乏感嘆時雨的詠春詩詞。

      “天街小雨潤如酥,草色遙看近卻無?!表n愈用“潤如酥”來形容初春小雨的細滑潤澤。草沾雨后,遠看似青,近看卻無,描繪出了初春雨后的朦朧景象。

      “好雨知時節,當春乃發生。隨風潛入夜,潤物細無聲?!倍鸥@首《春夜喜雨》以極大的喜悅之情細致地描繪了春雨的特點,意境淡雅,意蘊清幽,詩境與畫境渾然一體,熱情地謳歌了來得及時、滋潤萬物的春雨。

      Rain Water is a solar term full of romance. Unlike sudden downpours in summer and cold showers in autumn, spring drizzles often fall at night, silently nurturingeverything on Earth; they are pleasant rainfalls alongside the falling apricot petals. Spring drizzles oftenmake one cheer up and feel happy. Across the ages, writers and poets have left numerous poems and proses eulogizing timely spring rains.

      “The royal streets are moistened by a creamlike rain;Green grass can be perceived afar but not nearby.”In the poem, Han Yu described spring drizzle as smooth as cream, and the lawn after rain looking green when viewed from distance but colorless nearby. This poem vividly depicts the obscure scenery after rain in early spring.

      “Good rain knows its time right;It will fall when comes spring.With wind it steals in night;Mute, it moistenseach thing.”In the poem “Happy Rain on a Spring Night”, Du Fu expressed his affection for the spring rain, and the scenery it portrays is full of elegance and tranquility. The poem is like a painting, eulogizing the timely spring rain that moistens everything.

      圖片來源:新華網

      Photo from Xinhuanet.com

      如果說立春是一年時間的起始,那么雨水時節,就是一年生命的起始,從自然草木,到農圃作物,再到人類本身,都在雨水時節展現出了無限的生命力和發展潛能。

      If the solar term Beginning of Spring marks the start of the year, Rain Water heralds the beginning of life in the new year. Every living creature, ranging from plants and crops to human beings, demonstrates limitless vitality and potential with the arrival of Rain Water.

      雨 水 與 驚 蟄

      Rain Water and Awakeningof Insects

      在如今的二十四節氣中,雨水作為春天的第二個節氣緊跟著立春,接下來是驚蟄、春分。但是在《漢書·律歷志》中,春天的前四個節氣順序卻是立春、驚蟄、雨水、春分,雨水與驚蟄的順序恰好相反,而這樣的歷法,在漢代曾經通行過很長時間。

      Of the current 24 Solar Terms, Rain Water is the second oneafter Beginning of Spring. The next two that follow it are Awakening of Inspect and Spring Equinox. In Book of Han—Records of Music and Calendar, however, the first four solar terms of spring in sequence were Beginning of Spring, Awakening of Insects, Rain Water, and Spring Equinox. But now, Rain Water falls prior to Awakening of Insects. The aforesaid calendar used to prevailfor a long time during the Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD).

      圖片來源:新華網

      Photo from Xinhuanet.com

      那么,當時的人們為何要調換雨水和驚蟄的次序呢?據說是因為儒家經典《禮記·月令》當中,對每一季、每個月的自然物候變化都有表述,且和后世節氣的名稱相似,比如《禮記·月令》在描述仲春(二月)的物候時,有“始雨水”的說法,其中的“雨水”與節氣中的“雨水”字面相同,但二十四節氣中雨水卻在一月,兩者頗有矛盾。所以西漢末年王莽改制時,國師劉歆奉命編定新的歷法《三統歷》,就將驚蟄放到了一月,雨水放到了二月。

      So, why did people adjust the sequence of Rain Water and Awakening of Insects at that time? It is said that The Book of Rites—Lunar Termshas detailed depictions for phenologicalchanges in every month and every season, and the terms it used are similar to the names of the later 24 Solar Terms. For instance, when depicting the phenological traits of the second month of spring, The Book of Rites—Lunar Termssays that “rain water begins”. However, as a solar term, Rain Water fell in the first month of spring, which went against the depiction. For this reason, during Wang Mang’s reforms at the end of the Western Han Dynasty, Liu Yin, the High Priest, placed Awakening of Insects in the first month and Rain Water in the second month when he was ordered to compile the new calendar San Tong Li (“Triple Concordance Calendar”).

      《宋書》 圖片來源:二十四史賞析

      The Book of Song(Photo from Appreciation of the Twenty-Four Histories)

      不過到了魏晉南北朝之后,越來越多的人開始重新認可《淮南子》《逸周書》中對于二十四節氣的排序。在沈約《宋書·律歷志》和敦煌出土的北魏太武帝太平真君十一年的日歷中,二十四節氣里的雨水已經回到農歷一月,緊跟著立春,也就和現在一樣了。

      After the Wei(220-266), Jin (266-420) and Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589), more and more people began to re-recognize the sequence of the 24 Solar Terms in Writings of Prince Huainanand Lost Book of Zhou. Accordingto Shen Kuo’s Book of Song—Records of Music and Calendarand the calendarof 450, the 11th year of the Tianping Zhenjun reign of Emperor Taiwu of the Northern Wei Dynasty, Rain Water as a solar term had been changed back to the first lunar month, following Beginning of Spring—just as today.

      春 雨 貴 如 油

      Rain in Springtime is as

      Precious as Oil

      初春時節

      各地農民搶抓農時

      圖片來源:新華網

      Farmers are busy in spring plowing in early spring.

      Photo from Xinhuanet.com

      雨水是全年第一個反映降水的節氣。我國是農業大國,深知“一年之計在于春”的農人們,在經歷過漫長冬天的休息之后,將在雨水開啟新一年的忙碌……

      俗話說:春雨貴如油。雨水節氣前后,油菜、冬麥普遍返青生長,對水分的要求較高,因此春季適量的降水對農作物的健康生長有很重要的作用。

      Rain Water is the first solar term of the year to indicate precipitation. China is a major agricultural country. Farmers believe that the whole year’s work depends on a good start in spring. After the slack season of winter, they begin a year’s farming work with the arrival of Rain Water.

      A saying goes that rain in springtime is as precious as oil. Around Rain Water, winter crops as oilseed rape wheat begin to turn green, and they demand more water. Therefore, appropriate rainfalls are vital to the healthy growthof crops in springtime.

      雨 水 暖,倒 春 寒

      Cold Spell in Late Spring Despite Temperature Rise around Rain Water

      一名游客春雨中漫步在梅花樹下

      圖片來源:新華網

      A tourist roams under a blooming plum tree in rain.

      Photo from Xinhuanet.com

      雨水時節,我國大部地區氣溫回升到零攝氏度以上,冰封的河水逐漸解凍。雖然這段時間氣溫回升較快,但活躍的冷空氣并未停歇,“倒春寒”時有發生。

      隨著天氣轉暖,人體皮膚肌理開始疏松,抵御風寒能力減弱,仍需隨時做好保暖工作,不過這時的“春捂”還應注意適時適度。

      此外,雨水時節地表濕氣漸增,溫潤不燥,益于調養腸胃陽氣,健脾利濕。飲食方面應注重營養均衡,五味不偏,常食新鮮果蔬,少吃油膩、生冷之物,同時注意精神調攝,做到勞逸適度,起居有常,以清邪利濕,和順肝氣。

      注意個人保健也很重要。大地春回,萬物復蘇,各種細菌、病毒極易滋生和傳播,應從各方面積極預防,保護好自己。經常鍛煉身體,進行有氧運動,提高和增強自身抵御疾病能力。

      Around Rain Water, temperaturerises above freezing point in most parts of China, and iced rivers begin to thaw. Despite the rapid rise of temperature during the period, cold currents remain active, bringing chill to late spring.

      As it turns warm, human skins become soft, resulting in the weakeningof cold-resistance capacity. For this reason, people still need to keep themselveswarm. However, excessive clothing during the period is also unhealthy.

      In addition, the land becomes moist and the weather is moderate around Rain Water. It is a good time to nourish theintestines and stomach, enrich theyang, reinforce the spleen, and remove moisture of the body. People should pay attention to balanced dietby eating various kinds of food. They are suggested to eat more fresh fruits and vegetables and less greasy, cold foods. Moreover, peopleneed to smoothen their minds, work and rest appropriately, and keep regular hours in daily life, so as to dispel evil, remove dampness, and strengthen the liver and inner energy.

      It is important to maintain personal health. With the arrival of spring, everything regains life. It is easy for variousgerms and viruses to grow and spread. Therefore, people need to strengthen disease preventionand protect themselves well. They should do exercises, especially aerobics, on a regular manner, so as to enhance their capacity to resist diseases.

      【參考資料】

      1. 人民日報:《今日雨水丨好雨知時節 當春乃發生》

      2. 徐麗成:《在“二十四節氣”里讀懂中國丨雨水:生命萌動的時節,蘊含無限潛能》

      3. 封面新聞:《我們的節日·口述民俗丨東風解凍,散而為雨 關于“雨水”,你知道多少?》

      4. 新華網:《今日迎來“雨水”節氣 仍需預防“倒春寒”注意保暖》

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